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This section was updated on 22 April 2014

  Brown, John (Abolitionist; hanged after attempting to incite slave rebellion at Harper's Ferry, Va.) Autograph Letter, signed ""John Brown"). Westport, NY: 22 May 1849. To: "Friend Hodges". Pale green 8vo, 7-1/8" x 7-5/8" (sight); 1p.; plus Autograph Addressed envelope he marked "Paid," bearing a "May 24" Westport roundstamp.
Price: $6,500.00

In full: "I have at last reached Essex Co with family team &c. but am detained from going to Timbucto in consequence of my Waggon (sic) not coming on as soon as I expected. I hope however to get away in a day or two. I shall be obliged myself to return to Springfield in a few days for a while & would be exceedingly glad to see you about the last of this week so that we may make some arrangement before I go back to Springfield. My wife is in feeble hea(lth). Yours in Truth / John Brown." The envelope is addressed: "Mr. Willis A Hodges (Loon Lake) / Merrillsville PO / Franklin Co / NY".

The letter is written to Willis A. Hodges (1801-1890) who, in 1847, founded the abolitionist paper The Ram's Horn, a weekly newspaper published and edited by Hodges, "A free Black born in Virginia, his family moved to New York in the mid-1830s after Nat Turner's rebellion…By the 1840s, Hodges functioned as one of the most outspoken advocates for abolition and equal rights in the State. His abolitionist newspaper caught the eye of Frederick Douglass and John Brown, both of whom contributed articles and funds…the paper reached a peak circulation of 2,500…After the paper ceased publication, Hodges continued to support abolitionist causes, including Brown. It is not known if Hodges was part of the Harpers Ferry planning, but when Brown was arrested in 1859, Hodges burned their correspondence…. The editor may have helped the U.S. army as a scout in Virginia during the Civil War, but the evidence is uncertain. After the war, he was active in Virginia politics during the Reconstruction era and after the Democratic Party regained power in Virginia, he returned to New York in 1876, where he lived until his death in 1890." --from Blackvoicenews.com. At the time of this letter, Brown and his family were settled in a black community founded in North Elba on land donated by the Anti-Slavery campaigner, Gerrit Smith (1797-1879). While there, Brown developed strong opinions about the evils of slavery and gradually became convinced that it would be necessary to use force to overthrow this system.

Brown's ink writing is dark and bold. Overall, a strong letter, with great association interest, from a desirable and uncommon historical figure, whose actions had a profound effect on the South's flight to disunion – both Robert E. Lee and John Wilkes Booth were present at his hanging. Please Note: the letter and cover are framed with what purports to be a couple of strands of Brown's own hair. We cannot verify that alleged fact, so we place no weight on it at all.


Clay, Cassius M. (Maj. Genl., U.S.V.; Lincoln's Minister to Russia; abolitionist) THE LIFE OF CASSIUS MARCELLUS CLAY. MEMOIRS, WRITINGS, SPEECHES, SHOWING HIS CONDUCT IN THE OVERTHROW OF AMERICAN SLAVERY, THE SALVATION OF THE UNION, AND THE RESTORATION OF THE AUTONOMY OF THE STATES. Cincinnati: 1886. 1st ed., 600p., frontis., illus.; deckled edges. Signed "C. M. Clay / 1900" above Preface.

Price: $1,500.00

If Clay's life did not occur exactly as he remembered, it should have. From Bowie Knife fights at political rallies to imprisonment in Mexico and the ambassadorship to Russia, this life of a wealthy southern abolitionist (a rare bird, indeed) is a real page-turner. Seven chapters have much on his relationship and ambassadorship to Russia, commenting on people ("My estimate of the Emperor, Alexander II"), places ("High Life in Russia. Infant Asylums and the Ballet. Actors and Singers…."), and more ("Prince Gorthacow Entertains the Diplomatic Corps", "Invited, I visit the Princess Dalgorouki" and more).

Very good, being above average; weak ft. hng. as usual; lt. rub; lt. ch. sp. ends; pencil owner's name dated "May 19th, 1900."

  (CONFEDERATE IMPRINT) "AN ACT recognizing the existence of War between the United States and the Confederate States; and concerning letters of marque, prizes and prize goods, Approved May 6th, 1861."  (Montgomery? 186) 4 pages. ([Parish 58).
Price: $3,500.00

Also contains the President’s instructions to private armed vessels, and Form of bond. 

Excellent and fresh; housed in a ½-leather slipcase and gilt spine lettering; protective inner wrapper. 

  (--) (Chicago Pre-Fire Imprint) Bound volume of sheet music, labeled on front board Hettie B. Foster, 13" x 10 1/2", leather spine.  Also includes other ante-bellum songs

(Sample Pages at Click-thru)

Price: $3,500.00

Musical Compositions Include:
1. J. N. Pattison.  Le Lever du Soleil (sunrise) Mazurka Caprice…  NY:  Firth, Son, & Co., 1864.  Dedicated to Mrs. James Gordon Bennett.
2. The Piano Forte Player.  Selected pieces Arranged as Piano Solos by Favorite Composers… L'Argentine Mazurka…  NY: Wm. Hall & Son, n.d.  Chicago publisher Root & Cady.
3. Emmanuel Chol.  Sauve qui peut. [Skedaddle]  Polka Caractéristique Pour Piano… New Orleans: A. E. Blackmar, 1867. 
4.  Theo. Von La Hache.  The Bohemian Glass Blower… 2nd edition, op. 409.  New Orleans: Blackmar & Co., [1860].
5. Mack, E.  Mozart's Celebrated Oxen Waltz.  Arranged for Piano.  Philadelphia: Lee & Walker, 1868.
6. Sparkling Gems: A Series of Popular and Brilliant Waltzes by Eminent Composers…  The Romantic by Joseph Lanner.  NY: Louis Grunewald, n.d.
7. Sparkling Gems: A Series of Popular and Brilliant Waltzes by Eminent Composers…  Schonbrunner Waltz.  Morning Star Waltz by F. Beyer.  Mobile: J. H. Snow, n.d.
8. Sparkling Gems: A Series of Popular and Brilliant Waltzes by Eminent Composers… Evening Star Waltz by F. Beyer.  Mobile: J. H. Snow, n.d.
9. Wm. L. Hensler.  Pennsylvania.  Walse Sentimentale…  New Orleans: A. E. Blackmar, 1862.  [Parrish 7368].
10. Marcailhou, G.  Indiana: Grand Walse…  Mayence, Anvers et Bruxelles, [1859].
11. Fred Burgmuller.  Souvenir de Ratisbonne: Grand Walse Brilliante Composée Pour Piano… Mayence, Anvers et Bruxelles, n.d.
12. Schubert, Camille.  Les Filles du Ciel (Heavan's Messenger).  Valses Brilliantes…  Boston: Oliver Ditson & Co., n.d.
13. Gertrude's Dream Waltz (Thranen Waltzer) Composed by Beethoven.  N.p.: n.d.
14. Davis, A.  Antoinette Waltz…  New Orleans: Louis Grunewald, [1867].
15. Souvenir of Galveston.  No. 1.  Fisherman's Gallopade.  Galveston: Augustus Sachtleben, n.d.
16. Long, James W.  The Artillery Galop.  Introducing the popular Army Air of Benny Havens.  Chicago: Root & Cady, 1868.  [Chicago Pre-fire imprint].
17. Parade Polka March, as Played by the N. O. Washington Artillery Band.  Arranged by Theodore von La Hache.  New Orleans: Louis Grunewald, 1861.  [Parrish 7356].
18. Peters, W. C.  The Louisville March and Quick Step.  Arranged for the piano Forte.  New Orleans: E. P. Werlein & Co., n.d.
19. Martin, T. J. Gen'l Persifor F. Smith's March.  Maryland: F. D. Benteen, 1848. 
20. Lignoski, B. R.  The Battle of Palo Alto March and Quick Step…  Baltimore: G. Willig, Jr., 1851.  Dedicated to General Twiggs, U.S.A.
21. La Rosalia. Nouvelle Musique pour les Quadrilles Lanciers. compose par Sr. Don Pedro de Herrera. New Orleans: Blackmar, 1863.  [Not found in Parrish].
Binding is chipped with some loss; shaken hinges; lightly mottled boards; light chipping of extremities;  text foxed, in some cases lightly, and in others heavily, but without chipping or loss.  Overall Very good.


Doubleday, Abner (Major General, USV; assumed command of I Corps at Gettysburg after J. F. Reynolds was killed, Albumen carte de visite signed "Compliments of / A. Doubleday / Major General" , back mark of C. D. Frederick and Co., NY.

Price: $2,800.00

Doubleday was famous as the supposed inventor of baseball (he was not), but more importantly as an eyewitness to the events at Fort Sumter in 1861. In 1863 he commanded a division of the Union I Corps at the Battle of Gettysburg, and on 1 July, 1863 took command of the corps when his commander, Major General John F, Reynolds was killed. The new commander of the Army of the Potomac, George G. Meade, later superseded Doubleday with General John Newton, possibly because Doubleday's Republican political convictions.

A vivid image from life with a bold inscription. A terrific presentation piece.


(Grant, Ulysses S. (18th President; General of the Armies) Partly Printed Document, signed “U. S. Grant” as President of the Society of the Army of the Potomac.  Counter-signed by Horatio C. King, as Secretary.  No place; no date. Printed by The Major & Knapp Lith. Co, NY.    21 x 16.5 inches. 


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $4,500.00

A membership document for the Society (a fraternal organization  for veterans) "Organized August 20, 1861 / Disbanded June 30, 1865." 

 One William Beckett, 2nd N.Y. Vols "a soldier" s made a member; pasted down next to his name is a 3" x 1.5" printed paper bearing a type of badge with various corps symbols, plus crossed swords and crossed cannon tubes.   Ornate iconography abounds:  images of Generals McClellan, Burnside, Meade, and Hooker (all former presidents of the Society); scenes of battle featuring the infantry, cavalry, and artillery.  Also flags, an eagle, and corps badges, and war paraphernalia. 

Grant served twice as president of the Society; his signature her is large and bold, being just slightly brushed by him.   Excellent; some overall toning, having once been backed with board; the central horizontal fold has been reinforced with professional mending tape. 


(--) ALBUMEN PHOTOGRAPH OF GRANT AND STAFF AT COLD HARBOR, VIRGINIA, MAY 1864.  "Brady / Washington" embossed on its heavy stock albumen.  8 x 5 inches; framed.

Price: $5,500.00

A most uncommon image of Grant and staff, especially being produced prior to the glass negative cracking!  Included are Generals Grant, Rawlins, Duff, Badeau, Bowers, Barnard, Parker, Babcock, and Moulter; and Colonel Dent (three unidentified).  In the background, peering out just to the right of the furthest figure, a Black servant stands for his own picture. 

Grant himself would later be photographed alone next to the same tree and holding the same rolled up papers in his hand. It has become the iconic Grant image.

Excellent tonality.


There are more Ulysses Grant Items in the Presidential Section

Scarce War Date


Holmes, Jr., Oliver Wendell (1841-1935) (Distinguished law teacher and scholar, authored The Common Law 1881. Massachusetts Chief Justice 1899-1902. Associate Justice 1902-32) Partly Printed Document, signed "O.W. Holmes / Capt. ADE." Head Quarters of 6th Corps: 30 June 1864 Quarto; 1pg.

Price: $2,500.00

A "No. 33 Requisition for Forage for 1 Private Horses in the service of Capt. Holmes" for the month of June. One of the Supreme Court's greatest members,

Holmes is best known for the free speech decision in Schenck v. United States (1919), which included the "clear and present danger" test.

Excellent with a dark, careful signature; usual folds. Holmes' signature is quite difficult to find during the Civil War years.


Hunt, Henry J. (Brig. Genl., U.S.V.; his artillery opened battle of Fredericksburg and stopped Pickett's charge at Gettysburg) Autograph Letter, signed. N.P.(near Petersburg): 7 December, 1864; to Colonel [John C.] Tidball. 8vo.; 4p


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $2,250.00

Hunt, artillery commander for the Army of the Potomac, instructs Tidball on arrangements for an up coming movement. Details include preparatory movements of mortars and heavy guns, deployments to the Union rear line, and instructions on what to take to the field.

Of crucial importance was, as always the case, the number and quality of horses taken. "The horses for the batteries which march should be picked, not one inferior one allowed to go. Take a good number of extra ones and a lot of harness extra for each battery. But a small proportion of artillery will move. Much service will be required of it and measures must be taken to ensure a prompt supply of ammunition on the field." Tidball, one of a host of talented artillerists in the Union army, made his name as commander of the hard riding and heavy hitting horse artillery from the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac.

Written on both sides of a single quarto sheet, folded, in dark ink that bleeds through. Numerous smudges and Hunt's difficult-to-read hand testify to the order's hurried composition. Hunt writes with such a heavy (nervous?) hand that his ink pools thickly on the paper, and then over the years ate holes through. This is a real war message. Usual folds and toning throughout.

  (Illinois)  Lieutenant Alonzo Brooks.  Half Plate Oval Albumen Photo, 10 1/2" x 9" framed.  A handsome albumen photo of a first lieutenant in Company K, 95th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. 
Price: $875.00

These Rockford-area men joined in the late summer of 1862, and served in the western theater through the end of the war, seeing action at Vicksburg, the Red River Campaign, the campaigns in Northern Mississippi, and Mobile.  One of Brooks’ comrades in arms was the famous female imposteur, Albert D. J. Cashier. 

Light chip from frame; light (incomplete?) graphite toning on Brooks’ coat, hair, and background; small gouges; four small gouges including one that partially mars Brooks’ eyebrow and forehead.

  (--) (10th Illinois) Jamison, Matthew H. RECOLLECTIONS OF PIONEER AND ARMY LIFE. (Kansas City: 1911). 1st edition, 363p., ft., illus. [D- 94].

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Price: $2,500.00

A fine unit history of the 10th Illinois, especially regarding the Atlanta Campaign. X.l; Repaired with tape; chipped spine with small loss; includes cabinet card photo of veteran and family with portrait of vet from war.

Comes with the author’s photo album of Cartes de Visite of family and soldiers of the regiment –fifteen identified, including Jamieson – along with CDV’s of well-known generals, such as Grant, Sherman, and McPherson. A scarce book, a one-of-a- kind collection!


Johnston, Albert Sidney (Genl., C.S.A.; DOW Shiloh; Texan Sec. War; Indian fighter)  Autograph Letter, signed “A. Sidney Johnston / Paymaster U.S.A.”   Austin, Texas:  7 August 1850.  Quarto (4to.); 1p.  WITH an albumen cdv of Johnston in pre-Civil War uniform, backmarked by E. & H.T. Anthony. 


Price: $2,850.00

Writing to Major General N(athaniel) Towson, U.S. Paymaster General, Johnston forwards “a monthly statement of moneys” (not present) for the preceding month. 

The Posts to be paid, he writes, include “the Colorado to the Trinity” rivers.  Johnston had fought in the Black Hawk War, and then in the Mexican War as Colonel of a Texas regiment.  He led the Utah expedition against the Mormons in 1857 and commanded the Department of Utah, before resigning his commission for an appointment as a full general in the Regular Army of the Confederacy.  

Very good; the ink is fresh and bold; the two folds have a light toning.


The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy
The Here and the Now Speeches Given by Leading Politicians of the Day


(Kansas-Nebraska Act) Group of Six Pamphlets. Octavo (6 1/4" x 9 3/4"); all original condition, uncut and unbound. Washington: 1854.


Price: $450.00







The Kansas – Nebraska bill was hotly debated. Its passages repealed the slavery extension restriction of the Missouri Compromise and allowed the doctrine of popular sovereignty to the two territories, thereby leading to a general realignment in American politics.

Very good, minor edge wear and the usual toning.

(More Stephen Douglas Here and Here)


Lee, Robert E.  (Confederate  General)  Printed Document, signed “R. E. Lee / Capt. Engrs.”  With Autograph Amendments.  [St. Louis]:   30 August 1838.  Oblong, 8vo.; 1 pg. cut from a larger document as usual.


Price: $2,950.00

Lee signs a requisition document for articles for the “Improvement of the Mississippi, above the Mouth of the Ohio” [printed].  Lee has crossed out “articles within charged have been received…” and wrote in, “allowance within made was necessary for” the said Improvement.  He ends with the addendum, “and according to the Authority of the dept. of the 30 August 1838.”  On the verso it is indicated that the requisition was for one H. I. H. Scarris for “commutation for fuel.” 

Lee’s signature and rank are large and bold.  Unusual for bearing Lee’s autograph amendments.  Very good; clean.


(--) Printed Document, signed (“R. E. Lee”), w/ his Autograph accomplishments. Washington College (letterhead), Lexington, Virginia: 28 April 1867.  4to.; 1p. 


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $6,500.00

A beautiful, careful signature as president is placed on a grade report for Edwin T. Dumble (1852-1927).  Classes for Latin, Greek, and Math are graded. Dumble became the State geographer of Texas for many years, later awarded an honorary Doctorate from Washington and Lee.

Overall clean and fresh; fold marks.


(--) (Lee, Mary Custis) Albumen Photograph, the Vannerson "Blockade"Portrait. Anderson Studio, 1864. 6 1/2" x 5 1/2"(sight), in matte; inscribed on verso and signed by Mary Custis Lee(April 9, 1901).


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $3,850.00

General Lee's daughter inscribed this famous left profile portrait to Mrs. St. John Alison Lawton. Inscription reads in full "General Robert E. Lee/of Virginia/C.S.A./To dear Mrs. Lawton/from/his daughter,/Mary Custis Lee/(date partially obscured). Accompanying card identifies Lawton as President General of the U.D.C., in 1925.

Very light stain on photo mat. A vivid image, handsomely framed.


Logan, John A. (Major General, USV), Albumen carte de visite signed "Respectfully / John A. Logan / Major General" , back mark of Barr and Young, Memphis.

Price: $1,500.00

John A. Logan was, at the beginning of the war, the political power broker in Southern Illinois' "Egypt" region. Up until the first Battle of Bull Run there was some concern that Logan might align with the Confederacy, and take Egypt with him. After Bull Run he famously and publicly rallied to the Union cause, raised the 31st Illinois Regiment, and led them to Fort Donelson. He was wounded there and soon thereafter appointed brigadier general. By the time of the Vicksburg Campaign Logan led a division in James McPherson's XVII Corps.

His division was given the honor of leading the victorious Union forces into Vicksburg on 4 July after the surrender, and then served as the garrison of the newly conquered Gibraltar of the Confederacy.


Mallory, Stephen R. (Sec. Navy, C.S.A.; U.S. Sen., Fla.). Autograph letter, signed, Navy Dept., Danville, Va., April 10, 1865, to Assistant Paymaster C. Lucius Jones.

Price: $1,850.00

In the last days of the war (note the Navy Department is on a train in Danville, Va.) Mallory writes, "The Department is informed that you have in your hands certain foreign exchange. You will turn over the same to Paymaster James A. Semple CSA, taking his receipt for the same." A note by Jones at the bottom reads "This is the last order I received in the Confederate War" and a further note "I turned over the exchange to Paymaster Micon at Wilmington, N.C."

A particularly fascinating government-in-flight naval document, written one day after Lee's surrender. On the verso is original transmittal cover. The letter has been deacidified and strengthened by infusion of cellulose.

Normal toning with light foxing; a very acidic mixture has left holes in the paper where the ink pooled. These create light loss within the text without diminishing the ability to read the script. Very good and a scarce find!

  (Mosby, John S.  (Colonel of the legendary “Partisan Rangers”, C.S.A.) – Book from his library) Herschel, Mrs. John.  MEMOIR AND CORRESPONDENCE OF CAROLINE HERSCHEL.   NY:  D. Appleton, 1876.  355p.  Signed “From Your Friend / Jno. S. Mosby” on the front pastedown and again “Jno. S. Mosby” on the rear pastedown. 

Caroline was the sister and helper of famed astronomer William Hershel.  Books from the library of “The Grey Ghost” are quite uncommon. 

Rubbed; almost loose signature; else v.g

  (Navy - Union)  Group of papers of Ansel B. Besse of Wareham, Mass., who was an acting Assistant Engineer, U.S.N. (7/1862 - 12/1865) aboard the vessels Kensington, Merrimac, and Pink, some of the time at New Orleans and Mobile.  Twelve (12) items; various places, July 1862 – August 1865 + 1900.  Mostly 4to., a few folio. 

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Included are appointment notices/orders, transfer orders, and grants of leave of absence. 

GIDEON WELLES:  5 Letters, Signed as Secretary of the Navy (some partly printed); two with Endorsements, signed by Rear Admiral DAVID G. FARRAGUT (also one Es by Rear Admiral HIRAM PAULDING); 3 Endorsements, Signed by Paulding; a Letter, Signed by BESSE asking for leave with an ES by Paulding as Commandant of Brooklyn Navy Yard.  Also, a printed reprimand from Welles ordering use of “whole sheets” in corresponding with the Navy Department; a partly printed Letter Signed by Henry K. Thatcher as Acting Rear Admiral on letterhead of West Gulf Squadron, off Mobile, Ala, 1 July 1865, granting a leave.  A folio Document Signed by DAVID D. PORTER grants a 4-month leave, noting the possibility of discharge thereafter; and “true copies’ of a couple of orders, one signed by Besse, and a 1900 Massachusetts state certificate of service rounds out the collection. 

Condition varies, with some margin and old wear; some soiling; short fold breaks; a little foxing and ghosting; but overall quite good.


Newton, John (Maj. Genl., U.S.V.; assumed command of I Corps at Gettysburg when Gen. J.F. Reynolds was killed). Partially Printed Document, signed "John Newton / Brg Genl" on form for United States Military Telegraph. Np: nd (c1861); with albumen CDV, 16" x 12 1/4" framed

Price: $575.00

General Newton wrote this undated telegram to his superior, General William B. Franklin in late 1861, likely soon after his 23 September appointment as brigadier general. At the time, Newton was responsible for constructing fortifications around Washington.

He writes in full, "Genl Franklin / The Genl wishes me to stay yet awhile – don't know whether I will be down to-day. Will telegraph." The general detaining him in Washington is probably George McClellan. By December, Newton commanded a brigade in Franklin's division.

A clean document, well presented in red, white and blue matte; CDV is presented in oval matte, featuring Newton's head and torso, wearing the single star of brigadier general.


Nichols, James M.  PERRY'S SAINTS OR THE FIGHTING PARSON'S REGIMENT IN THE WAR OF THE REBELLION.  Boston: (1886).  1st edition, 299p., illustrations, maps. D-326. With Nichols, James M.  Clayton's Octavo Diary for 1862.  365 days, manuscript entries. 

Price: $5,500 - For the Pair

James Nichols used this daily diary to record his experiences with the 48th New York Infantry Regiment. 

Nichols notes that he received the diary on May 5, so the pages for the first few months are used to reminisce about life and operations along the South Carolina Coast, and during the siege of Fort Pulaski.  Nichols, a lieutenant, had plenty of opportunities to lead small expeditions and boat reconnaissance in the swamps around the fort.  He commenced his daily entries on May 6.  Nichols was well-read and opinionated.  Both his narrative history up till May 6, and his daily entries thereafter are vivid and interesting. 

PERRY'S SAINTS, written partly from this diary, is an important contribution to the story of the war on the coast, but also follows the regiment to Virginia, documenting major combat at Drury's Bluff and Petersburg. 

Diary toned; tight and v.g.; Nichols struck through some passages and left some ink blots; otherwise very good and neat; PERRY'S SAINTS lt. tone; lt. ch. extrems.; v.g.   


(Sanitary Fair Broadside)  "AN APPEAL ON BEHALF OF THE 'SOLDIERS AND SAILORS' HOME...."  [Philadelphia:  circa October1865]    7-1/4 x 12-3/4 inches; laid down at the edges.


Price: $375.00

Printed by a committee on behalf of the Fire Department, the broadside urges support for the Philadelphia Sanitary Fair of October 23 to November 4, 1865. 

The Fire Department’s Chief, the City Controller, the Fire Association, and others ask for contributions of money or goods on behalf of the soldiers and sailors who became crippled in the late war.  Referring to the Rebel invasion of their own state:  “(We) beg all to remember the days of gloom preceding the battle of Gettysburg…How gladly would all have contributed then, to enable our brave army to drive the invader form our noble State, and save our beloved homes from wreck and ruin.”  A wonderful woodcut at the top depicts two crippled soldiers surrounded by the caption, "RELICS OF THE WAR. / TAKE GOOD CARE OF THEM."  

Light surface soiling; a little corner wrinkling; else excellent.


South Carolina Dissolves It's Bonds to the United States


[SECESSION]. Printed broadside, Charleston Mercury Extra: / Passed unanimously at 1.15 o’clock, P.M., December 20th, 1860 / AN ORDINANCE… "THE UNION IS DISSOLVED!" [Charleston, 20 December 1860]. 1 page, broadside, 11¼ x 23 in., expertly conserved, matted and framed (21 x 33 in.). Sabin 87439.



Price: $35,000.00

THE FIRST STATE TO BOLT IN THE SECESSION CRISIS. The "fire-eaters" in the South had made it clear: the election of the "Black republican" candidate Abraham Lincoln meant the end of the Union. One South Carolinian told a London journalist "Nothing on earth shall ever induce us to submit to any union with the brutal blackguards of the New England States!" (McPherson, Battle Cry, 234-35) In vain did Northerners and Southern Unionists try to point out the differences between Lincoln and the more radical abolitionists. Amidst a mood of revolutionary carnival, the Carolinians called a convention to consider secession. Outside bands marched, fireworks flared, and eager soldiers declared themselves neo-Minute Men. Only a single vote was taken, and the momentous ordinance was passed unanimously, 169 to 0. Within fifteen minutes this broadside announcement--probably set in type while the Convention met--was in circulation on the streets of Charleston.

"EXTRA: Passed Unanimously at 1.115 o'clock, P.M., December 20th, 1860. An Ordinance to Dissolve the Union between the State of North Carolina and other States united with her under the compact entitled 'The Constitution of the United States of America.' We, the People of South Carolina, in Convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, That the Ordinance adopted by us in Convention, on the twenty-third day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight, whereby the Constitution of the United States of America was ratified, and also, all Acts and parts of Acts of the General Assembly of this States, ratifying amendments of the said Constitution, are hereby repealed; and that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of 'The United States of America,' is hereby dissolved." This began the avalanche. Within weeks six other states joined: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. The more cautious states in the upper South wavered, but the momentum towards disunion ultimately carried them into the Confederacy as well.

A key, and graphic, Civil War relic, uncommon in good condition.  According the Charleston Mercury itself, 200 copies were initially printed, with another 200 to cover its high demand amongst the populace.  The present broadside probably comes from the second 200, as an error was fixed:  a comma added after “P.M.”

(Slavery)  Reward Broadside for “Ranaway” Slave, signed in print by Henry Mitchell.  Glymont, Charles Co., MD:  April 11, 1854.  9-½” x 12”. 



Price: $4,500.00

Mitchell offered a $50 Reward for the capture and return of a “Negro Man, FRANK, or FRANCIS, aged about 23 years…a Mulatto, not very bright…of good development of flesh and size….”  The fugitive’s dress was “the ordinary drab Kersey jacket and pants, and cloth cap.”  The $50 reward was for capture outside the country; but willing to pay only $30 if Frank were captured in the neighborhood.  The year 1854 is associated with Lincoln coming out of political retirement in response to the possible nationalization of slavery through the Kansas-Nebraska Act that same year. 

Usual toning w/ some very lt. fox.; some print ghosting from the hasty nature of the print job; very lt. horizontal fold that does not mar the text.


Smith, Gustavus W. (Major General/ interim Secretary of War, C.S.A.; Major General Georgia militia; engineering instructor West Point) Autograph Letter, signed. Harrison's: 22 May, 1862, 10 P.M.; to General John B. Magruder. Docketed "G.M.S. to Genl. Magruder, May 22nd/62." quarto., 2p., in pencil.



Price: $1,850.00

Gustavas Smith writes to "Prince John" Magruder during the long retreat to the gates of Richmond after receiving word that McClellan is bridging the Chickahominy River.

Smith writes that commanding General Joseph E. Johnston is away from headquarters, but "… I have again to say that the crests this side of Meadow bridges and Mechanicsville must be held. The positions are strong. If the troops you already have there are not sufficient they must be supported…" He further states that General Paul Semmes Georgia troops must remain on outpost duty, makes assurances that orders will be forthcoming, and urges that any Union movements against Confederate bridges must be driven back.

Light foxing; Weakening at folds but still whole; light chipping at top margin; else very good.


(Vicksburg)  (Newspaper)  THE DAILY WHIG, BY TELEGRAPH.  Vicksburg, Miss:  Saturday Morning, 9 May 1863.  Folio, 21-5/8 x 7-1/2 in.; 1p. 

Price: $1,850.00

Found in the diary of W. E. Dudley, Battery B, 1st Illinois Light Artillery (from Chicago), this may be one of a kind – not in Parish & Willingham’s Confederate Imprints.  [Facsimile cdv photo of Dudley included.] 

Printed in two columns, most of the news is contained in very short mentions and news in brief, which include:  reports from Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee (report of Van Dorn being assassinated); Capture of a Yankee Gunboat; Outrages by Arkansas Traitors; Guerrillas near Owensboro; Amendment of the Impressment Law; ravages of smallpox; England and U.S. at odds over the arrest of Commodore Wilkes; the dictatorship of Abraham Lincoln through conscription; and a report of Jeff Davis worrying about the army’s “Starving Out Process” (“The rebels cannot be starved out.  They must be whipped in the field, by strategy, by good tactics, and by all the science and art of war.”); and much more. 

Excellent; large margins; evidence of a hurried nature.


Walker, Leroy P.; (Brig. Genl./ 1st Sec. War, C.S.A.) Autograph letter, signed "LP Walker / Secretary of War", Richmond, 2 September, 1861, on Confederate states of America War Department letterhead to Dr. William Morris. 1p., quarto., docketed.

Price: $1,500.00

Walker writes to Morris, president of the Southern Telegraph Company in Richmond, requesting cooperation with the government.

Walker includes a quoted passage from General Joseph E. Johnston, complaining that telegraph operators are closing their offices for much of the day on Sundays. He requests, sternly, "that you will cause immediate steps to be taken, to remove the difficulty complained of, in this important branch of the public service."

Light foxing and chipping at extremities, partially obscuring "War" in signature; small holes near upper left corner, upon vertical fold, and near bottom. Slight separation at bottom of vertical fold. Else very good.


Ward, J. H. Hobart. (Brigadier General, U.S.V., defender of Devil's Den at Gettysburg). Carte de Visite, signed "Compliments of / J. H. Hobart Ward." Backmark Baily & Silver's Photographic Gallery 395 & 397 Broadway, N.Y.

Price: $375.00

Ward, a career enlisted man, helped organize, and gained command of the 38th New York regiment in 1861. By 1863 he had advanced to the rank of Brigadier General of Volunteers, and commanded a brigade in the III Corps, under General Daniel Sickles.

At Gettysburg on July 2, 1863, Ward commanded Union troops assigned to defend Devil's Den. Their heroic fight is part of Gettysburg lore. In the summer of 1864 Ward was arrested for drunkenness at the battle of the Wilderness, but was permitted to resign honorably.

A good, clear CDV in near mint condition; signature is bold, although the "J" and part of "compliments are quite light. Very good.

  Whitman, Walt (“Poet Laureate of the Civil War”:  O Captain!  My Captain!)  Albumen Photograph, signed.  NP: Napoleon Sarony, 1878.  Framed, 5-¼” x 7-¼” (sight), 10-½” x 13” (overall); on heavy stock paper.

Price: $8,500.00

In July of 1878, Walt Whitman (59 at the time, with his seminal Leaves of Grass in its 7th edition) was invited by Napoleon Sarony to sit for a series of portraits; this and eight other photographs were the result. 

On the afternoon after the sitting, the famed poet and lecturer (often on Lincoln) wrote Harry Stafford, a young printer’s employee who had recently become an intimate friend, that he "had a real pleasant time" at "the great photographic establishment". 

Boldly signed at bottom border; very light foxing on upper left border; else excellent, striking, in a lovely green matting.  A strikingly beautiful photograph with a strong signature.



Autographs, Documents and Manuscript Material

Campaigns, Elections & Inagurations

Lincoln Family, Cabinet Members, Colleagues & Friends
Autographic & Ephemeral Items

Lincoln Photographica

Autographs, Documents and Manuscripts

Lincoln Pass To a Union-Held Town in North Carolina


Lincoln, Abraham. Autograph Endorsement on a card, signed “A. Lincoln.”  [Washington, DC]:  15 August 1862.   Attached to an Autograph Letter, signed of Montgomery Meigs, Quarter Master General of the Army, on QM Office imprinted stationery. 


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $18,500.00

Lincoln orders Meigs:  “Quarter Master General, please give the bearer, Mr. Foster, a pass to Newbern, N.C.”  Meigs then writes a note:  “All Quarter Masters will respect, the request of the President on the card attached. / M C Meigs / Q.M.Genl.”  Meigs had the card attached to his note by a ribbon and his red wax seal.

Montgomery Meigs was rated the Union Quarter Master General during the Civil War as The Number One most underrated person in the war, being “underappreciated given the scope of his accomplishments.”

Certainly this pass was issued for Charles H. Foster of Salisbury, N.C. Foster had written Ward Lamon on August 9th of 1861 on the subject of raising a regiment of loyal North Carolinians, if it could be equipped.   Foster, an unconditional Union Candidate, was elected to congress for the First Congressional District of North Carolina in November, 1861, under a provisional state government which later collapsed. Congress denied him his seat on the ground that he had received only 400 votes in a district of 9,000 voters.
On August 31, 1861, Lincoln had written to Simon Cameron, “Respectfully submitted to the War Department, with the remark that if arms were in the hands of a Union Regiment in N.C. they probably would not remain in their hands long.” 

Obviously Foster was again trying to raise a regiment a year later. Read More About Foster.


(--) Autograph Endorsement, signed: [Washington, DC]:  9 Sept 1862.   "I omitted to send this by the boy whom I gave a card to you today."


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $8,500.00

The letter Lincoln forgot to send is included, being from F. A. Conkling of New York.  He wrote to Lincoln introducing  two of his  constituents. 

Dark, clear ink throughout, but evenly toned. 


(--)  Autograph Endorsement, signed.  [Washington, DC]:  8 April 1864.   4to.; 2p.  In full:  “Submitted to the Secretary of War. / A. Lincoln / April 8, 1864.” 


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $8,500.00

Lincoln writes on the verso of a letter from Thomas McNamara asking the president for a paymaster appointment, citing the highest order of testimonials from Simon Cameron, B. J. Coffey, Thaddeus Stevens, and others. 

Though there is much  showthrough,  Lincoln’s ink is bold and clearly readable.  Clean fold tears have been expertly conserved.


(--)  Autograph Endorsement, signed "A Lincoln." [Washington, DC}: 18 February 1865. 12mo.; 1p.


(Close up of Endorsement at Click-thru)

Price: $8,900.00

In full: "Let this man take the oath of Dec. 8, 1863 & be discharged." The "oath" Lincoln refers to is an oath of loyalty to the U.S. that Confederate prisoners of war,and others jailed for "disloyalty" needed to take before being released.

Framed with a period vignetted "Penny Pose" albumen carte de visite, taken by Anthony Berger, January 8, 1864 (O-89); it is especially clear with nice contrast. The wooden frame is of the period, being the deeply set variety with a gold fillet: A dramatic look!


(--)  Autograph signed "Yours truly/A. Lincoln." on blue paper fragment, framed with Anthony-backmarked, carte-de-visite O-86 (the "Solitary Pine" photo); matted and framed. Overall 11" x 8 1/2"


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $8,500.00

Handsomely matted and framed.

A great "starter" presentation--ready to hang and enjoy!





(--) Partly Printed Document, signed "Abraham Lincoln" Washington: 20 January 1865. 4to.; 1p.


Price: $12,500.00

A document authorizing the "Secretary of State to affix the Seal of the United States" to a pardon. Accomplished in holograph: "A Warrant for the pardon of H. W. Pryor, James Pryor and W. L. Ringo." The 1860 census identifies two of these Kentuckians: Ringo, as 38-year-old merchant; and H. W. Pryor, as 51-year-old "hogfeeder". Lincoln was especially sympathetic in pardoning Kentuckians as a way of strengthening Union sentiment in that crucial border state.

A fine example with a full Lincoln signature, which has a very shallow fold through it.

  (--) (Patriotic envelopes) A Complete set of the “CHAMPION PRIZE ENVELOPE - LINCOLN & DAVIS IN 5 ROUNDS” published by J.H. Tingly, New York; copyright by T.S. Pierce, 1861. (Milgram AL 292-296)

Price: $1,950.00

Each of the five envelopes has an all-over face design, in black, showing one round of a fight between Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis. 

In the 1st, Lincoln proclaims “I use no more force than necessary,” while a cringing Davis cries “Let me alone!”’ in the 2nd, Lincoln had ripped the seat of Davis’s trousers, telling him “Go back you dog to the junction...”; next, Lincoln has Davis in a headlock, his partisans scattering; the 5th shows Lincoln the victor w/ the “Championship Belt.” 

Uncommon and desirable early war enthusiasm. 

Very good; lt. toning to two; handsomely framed with images of Lincoln and Davis.   



Lincoln Campaign & Inaugural Memorabilia

  (Campaign Biography) Victor, O.J. PRIVATE AND PUBLIC LIFE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN. New York, Beale & Company. 16mo., illus, 98p., orange wraps.
Price: $525.00

A popular way for citizens to "get to know the candidates" these pamphlets are usually printed on thin paper and were not intended to last past the election. Consequently, campaign biographies can be difficult to find.

Large chip lower right, edge and spine wear, soiling; some creasing to interior pages.





(Campaign Ribbon) Douglas, Stephen. Very pale green silk campaign ribbon, printed in black, bearing bust engraving of Douglas between captions "Douglas / and / Johnson. // The Union, / Now and / Forever." Approx. 2 1/4" x 6".


Price: $3,500.00

An extremely scarce and handsome 1860 campaign ribbon--AND SCARCE--Perhaps even more so that its Lincoln counterpart!

Tiny losses and splits (minimally visible) repaired by having the entire verso covered with old (and new) stiff linen tape. Otherwise bright and in good condition.

(More Stephen Douglas, Above and Below)


(Electoral Ticket)  REPUBLICAN TICKET. [flag and eagle device] ABRAHAM LINCOLN, OF ILLINOIS…HANNIBAL HAMLIN, OF MAINE….   [Boston]:   circa 1860.   


Price: $2,250.00

An unusually large ticket, 4-5/8 x 11 inches.  Lightly written in ink at the  bottom is the name of the printer, “Thomas Wood” of Middleton, MA. 

Very good; clean; fold breaks expertly repaired on the verso. 


(--) NATIONAL UNION TICKET.  Eagle and flag device, with the eagle holding a banner in its mouth proclaiming “Lincoln & Johnson” PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS….(Boston): circa 1864. 


Price: $1,850.00

An unusually large ticket, 6 x 13-3/4 inches. 

Very good; clean; a clean horizontal fold break  could easily be repaired. 



  (--) UNION PRESIDENTIAL TICKET "Lake County / Ohio / Union Presidential Ticket" listing Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, and a slate of Presidential electors. Bears a woodcut bust of a "Union" sword-wielding, flag-draped Liberty. About 3.25" x 7 in.

Price: $295.00

Fresh; printed on white paper.


Gettysburg Address


(Gettysburg Address) ADDRESS OF HON. EDWARD EVERETT AT THE CONSECRATION OF THE NATIONAL CEMETERY AT GETTYSBURG, 19TH NOVEMBER 1863...Boston; 1864. 87 (+1), in wraps, with fold-out map; M-194; Carbonell #6.

Price: SOLD

Includes Lincoln's "few brief remarks."

This is the so-called 'official report' authorized and paid for by the Soldiers' National Cemetery Association, published in Boston by Little Brown and Company.

Good condition, missing back cover, spine chipping, edge toning. Map has minor ghosting.



(--) (Bliss, Alexander & Kennedy, John Pendleton, eds. and intro.)  AUTOGRAPH LEAVES OF OUR COUNTRY’S AUTHORS.  Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey, 1864.  Quarto; ix, [1], 200, [1] pages; original brown cloth with gold-embossed front board & spine; t.e.g. Enclosed in a ½ morocco slipcase; w/ protective cloth wrapper and draw ribbon.  Very good; tight and clean; small newspaper clipping pasted onto the Lincoln page, below his signature; rubbed at edges. 


(More at Click-Thru)

Price: $3,850.00

Colonel Bliss (Daniel Webster’s law partner) and author John Kennedy devised a plan to solicit original manuscripts from the leading American authors and then to lithograph them for a book to be sold for the benefit of the Sanitary Fair to be held in Baltimore. 

Noted statesman and author George Bancroft asked The President to write out the text of his Gettysburg Address.  On February 29, 1864, Lincoln responded, “Herewith is the copy of the manuscript which you did me the honor to request.” When it was found that the Bancroft copy of the manuscript did not correspond to the form they wished, Kennedy wrote to Lincoln, explaining the problem.  The President wrote the speech once again; that copy, now known as the Bliss copy, appears on pages III, IV, and V of this book—the first publication of any of the Gettysburg Address manuscripts in facsimile. 

Other authors’ manuscripts in facsimile include: Francis Scott Key, Edward Everett, Washington Irving, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, John Audubon, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Longfellow, Melville, Emerson, and others—92 in all.   This is a true relic of the war; a classy production whose proceeds were entirely for the aid of soldiers and their families. The original manuscripts were also to be sold, but they fared poorly.  The Bliss copy was later sold at auction, purchased by a Cuban émigré, who donated the original to the White House.


(--) (Newspaper - Chicago Tribune)  Lincoln, Abraham. Gettysburg Address. Within: Chicago Tribune. Whole issue: Volume XVII, Number 133.  Chicago, Saturday, November 21, 1863.  Folio tabloid sheet, 22 by 28-1/4 inches unopened; four pages.  [Carbonell, THE EARLY PRINTINGS OF THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS, #3a]  Written by “Special Dispatch” from Harrisburg, Nov. 20, 1863, being about 1-3/4 column inches.

Price: $4,500.00

The whole of the Gettysburg Address is published, though of interest, it is garbled with fascinating mistakes.  Whether the reporter made the errors (perhaps not having heard the address well, as he was seated poorly) or whether either of the telegraphers involved (one outgoing and the other receiving) made the mistakes, or even that the typesetter made those errors, will never be known

“There were four known newspaper copyists at work in Gettysburg, of whom the representatives of the Associated Press (Gilbert) and the Boston Daily Advertiser (Hale) are the most accurate” (Wills, 191-2).  The Tribune had sent out its own reporter, so as not to rely on the Associated Press, with which they were having a spat; the Western Associated Press was formed soon after (The Western papers felt they were not getting their money’s worth from the reports and reporters coming from New York, merely getting “the crumbs”). 

Not being able to get a telegraph line out of Gettysburg, the reporter traveled up to Harrisburg to file the story.  Historians differ on preferred transcriptions, with no priority established. The Chicago Tribune precedes by one full day the two first separate publications in pamphlet form, by Baker & Godwin in New York and the Washington, DC Chronicle Office. The final authorized version did not appear until 1864, in Autograph Leaves of our Country’s Authors, printed to be sold at the Baltimore Sanitary Fair and being the first actual facsimile of the Address as well.


(--)(--) AN ORATION DELIVERED ON THE BATTLEFIELD OF GETTYSBURG, (NOVEMBER 19, 1863) AT THE CONSECRATION OF THE CEMETERY….  New York:  Baker & Godwin, 1863. 48 pages; Address on page 40.  [Monaghan 193; Carbonell 3a]  Lacks wrappers; bound in full brown crushed Morocco by Stikeman; raised spines; lea. spine label; inside boards full lea. with silk flyleaves. Housed in a custom cloth felt-lined clamshell case, with gilt-lettered pastedown label to spine; silk endpapers.  [Monaghan 193; Carbonell 3a; Wills, 191-204, 261-263; Howes E233; Sabin 23263; Streeter 1747]

Price: $26,500.00

John Carbonell in his EARLY PRINTINGS OF…GETTYSBURG ADDRESS, shows beyond doubt that the SOLEMNITIES, touted by Paul Angle as the true first printing, was published simultaneously with this publication, AN ORATION…  The text of the Address comes from the New York Daily Tribune.  

Besides Lincoln’s Address and Edward Everett’s Oration, there is a lengthy description of the battlefield and the consecration exercises and a plan of the cemetery and a listing of the remains by state.  Also, a small note as to the “relic hunting” proclivities of the locals.  Save for the newspapers, this is one of only two printings of the Address in the same year as Lincoln delivered it and is the first book or pamphlet appearance of the Address. 

Quite Scarce!

  (--) (Print) LINCOLN’S GETTYSBURG ADDRESS. New York World’s Fair, 1964-65. 30” x 23”.

(More at Click-thru)

Price: $375.00

This wonderful print was produced for the Illinois Pavilion at the New York World’s Fair of 1964-65; a very limited number has now come to light as a remainder edition. Abraham Lincoln’s classic remarks at the dedication of the National Military Cemetery at the Gettysburg battlefield on November 19, 1863, are printed in nine languages and in various bright colors: English (a facsimile in Lincoln’s own hand), and in Hebrew, Japanese, Greek, French, German, Spanish, Russian, and Latin.

As new; a beautiful display piece for a school, office, home, or public venue. While they last!


Assassination, Funerals & Mourning


(Lincoln Assassination) Ball, James N. Autograph Letter, signed as "Capt. of Watchmen" [Washington, DC]: 2 May 1865 [docket on verso: "Reporting upon duties of the Watchman during the Month of April 1865.] To: Capt. C. L West. 4to.; 1p. Short tear at upper margin not affecting text; both upper corners darkened, probably from mounting corners; two folds; neatly written and very good.


Price: $1,100.00

In Full:

"I have nothing of especial interes(t) to Report to you respecting the doings of the Watchmen employed on the Capitol Extension and New Dome during the month of April. I repor(t) to you Mr. Burgdorf, as having a substitute during the entire month, once found his man asleep on post. Thare (sic) was no passes granted to visitors to the Dome, during the entire month; on the day of the burial of the "President," several persons was (sic) admitted to the Dome, by the key in passion [possession] of the Police of the Capitol. But who it was that used the key for that purpos(e) I have not been able to learn, altho I have mad(e) diligent enquiree about it. Mr. Dumar, the Dome Watchman, think(s) they war (sic) admitted by the trap in the south wing rough / All of Wich (sic) is Respectfully submitted / James N. Ball / Capt. of Watchman."

The functions of the watchmen, as foreseen by the original Commissioners of the City of Washington, were to guard the government's public buildings and grounds. According to National Park Service history, by 1801 here was one watchman for the Capitol and one for the Executive Mansion. The sparse staff was increased to four at the Capitol by 1827. By 1849, the watchmen became part of the Interior Department and remained so throughout the Civil War. Expansion of the original Capitol building, begun in the 1850s, continued during the War, including the replacement of Charles Bullfinch's original dome. The new cast-iron dome, designed by Thomas U. Walter, was not completed until January 1866.


[(--) (Blood Relic) A clipped portion of the towel used to staunch Abraham Lincoln’s blood from the gun-shot wound inflicted on him.  2-1/2 x ½ inches, bearing blood stains.


Price: SOLD

Original 19th century display matting, the towel piece floated inside mourning rules. 

Below is a printed card with mourning border that reads in part:  “A Piece of the Towel used in washing and staunching the pistol-shot wound of President Lincoln….This Relic was given to me by a son of Mr. Peterson on the morning of the19th, following—the day of the Funeral Ceremonies at Washington – whilst in the room where the President died. / Baltimore, April 29th, 1865.  / Wm. W. Carter. ”   

It is known that at least one towel used on Lincoln had been cut up and distributed to friends of the Peterson family; the weave of this piece positively matches other known towel clippings. 


(--) Booth, John Wilkes. Carte-de-visite. Gutman 2.

Price: $3,500.00

Post-assassination carte of John Wilkes Booth, with caption reading "John Wilkes Booth/The supposed assassin of President Lincoln, on/Friday night the 14th April 1865"

Booth cartes are rather rare as people destroyed them after the assassination.

Carte has some edge soiling. Framed, with black mat.


(--) (--) Playbill Broadside from the Boston Museum theatre, in varied type faces and sizes, listing a performance for May, 1862. Approx. 14 x 22 in.; logo at foot of "F.A. Searle, Steam Job Printer, Journal Building."

Price: $4,500.00

The skeletal remains of the original King Richard III were recently found under a parking lot, so it is fascinating that this playbill comes up at this time. 

Prior to his assassination of Lincoln, Booth was a leading star of his time, his celebrity eclipsing many of his contemporaries.  Ironically, it would be partly this celebrity that would allow Booth to enter Ford's Theatre the night of April 14, 1865, without even a second glance from the management. This particular playbill was part of an unusually long run Booth did at the Boston Museum, which would prove to be his last long-running engagement before he began planning the plot that would result in Lincoln's murder.  Booth’s name is mentioned three times in the playbill and the play, RICHARD III, is in a large, bold type.  

Affixed to a mat (7.5" x 19.5"); toned but still excellent.


Illinois Funerals & Mourning


(Lincoln Funerals in Illinois) Three Albumen Photographs, each 7-1/4 x 5-1/4 inches mounted on board, 7-1/2 x 9/1-2 inches overall.   Views include:  Lincoln’s Springfield Home draped in mourning; Reception of Lincoln’s remains in Chicago; Crowds filing into Chicago’s City Hall, where Lincoln’s remains were on view. No photographer imprints, but circa 1860s. 

Price: ON HOLD

These photographs, taken from the original glass negatives, form a snapshot of Illinois paying homage to its own (claimed) son. 

The first photograph of Lincoln’s Home is itself iconic, taken from across the street, black bunting hanging along the roof and in the windows.  The dirt streets have wooden walkways, while a small sign placed there by some enterprising retailer, says “Great Reductions / Dry Goods,” the rest being unreadable.  One of the more interesting aspects of the first photo is being able to clearly see the homes next to the Lincoln’s house – now long gone – as well as the carriage house in the rear. 

The Reception at Chicago shows the Memorial Arch erected for him, with the train car that brought him here in the background.  A young boy, sitting on a fence, watches the camera; while 36 high school girls dressed in white, wait beside the catafalque.  The crowds lining up at City Hall seem to be moving in the last photo. 

All three have fine tonality, with some minor soiling and pin holes in the mounting board.  Each has a contemporary penciled notation on the verso, though the Reception and City Hall are mis-identified as being in Springfield.


(--) (Chicago Association) Spurr, George W.  Autograph Letter, signed.  Chicago:  17 April 1865.  To:  Mr. Hammond.  8vo.; 3p. 


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: SOLD

Spurr writes a mere two days after Lincoln’s death. After informing Hammond that he is now residing in Chicago and taking in boarders, and what the price of certain commodities is, Spurr relates the agitation of the assassination in Chicago.  In part:  “There is terrible excitement in this city on account of the President’s Death.  He is going to be brought here soon and will be seen, then there will be the greatest collection of people ever seen in Chicago.  There was 4 men shot for saying that they was glad Lincoln was killed so you can judge how the people are excited.  It is awful time.  What it will amount to no one can tell….” 



(--) Rathbone, Henry R. (Major, A.A.G., U.S.V.) Partly Printed Document, signed ("H.R. Rathbone" as Bvt. Col. U.S.A.). War Department, Adjutant General's Office (letterhead). Washington, DC: 31 January 1864. 4to.; 1p.



Price: SOLD

Rathbone accepts a check for $1035 from the "Treasurer U.S….on account of the Barroll fund."

A stepson of Sen. Ira Harris of N.Y., Rathbone was the guest (with stepsister Clara Harris) of Abraham and Mary Lincoln at Ford's Theatre on 14 April 1865. Rathbone was seriously wounded trying to stop Booth after he had shot the President, collapsing from loss of blood after subsequently escorting Mrs. Lincoln to the Peterson House.

Years later, while U.S. Consul at Hanover, Germany, he murdered his wife Clara in a fit and ended his days in a German asylum for the criminally insane.

Excellent, with a strong, clear signature.


(--) Surratt, Jr., John H. Autograph Letter, signed twice ("Jno H. Surrat") once in the text and once at the close. Surrattsville, MD: 10 November 1863. 15 x 9 1/2, 1p. To Hon. Colonel Watson, Assistant Secretary of War.


(More at click-thru)

Price: $8,500.00

Surratt pens in full: "In compliance with your instructions, I herewith send you my address; --Jno. H. Surratt, Surratt's Ville, Maryland. I humbly beg you will give your earliest possible attention to my appointment and by so doing, you will confer a great favor upon Your odedt Servant Jno. H. Surratt"

Endorsement on back reads John H. Surratt/Nov. 10, '63/Sends Address/Surrattsville, Md.

Very good, slight toning at left edge, creases from folding at one time in sixths, at another in half.


A Nation Mourns

A Unique Artifact
The True Last Image of Lincoln Drawn Fron the Flesh

Lincoln in His Coffin, City Hall New York City


(Lincoln, Mourning) Morand, Pierre. LINCOLN IN DEATH. Ink and Opaque White Gouache on Heavy Paper; Signed on verso:  “Final Drawing / Pierre Morand” Witten on right front margin:  “City Hall, New York / 25 April 1865” 4-3/4” x 6-1/2”; slightly irregular.

Price: On Request

This drawing was done by a Frenchman named Pierre Morand, who moved to the United States and became acquainted with Abraham Lincoln after the Civil War began. Although not a professional, he made several endearing (and enduring) sketches of the president, because “In life Mr. Lincoln’s features and movements impressed me so vividly.”  Among them were:  Lincoln at the Soldiers' Home just outside Washington, where the Lincolns spent the summer months; leaning against a tree reading a paper in 1864; another showing him carrying a satchel, walking from the Executive Mansion with his wife, Mary, perhaps going up to the Soldier’s Home; and a number of various informal poses of Lincoln during June, 1864.

Famously, Morand had contravened Secretary of War Edwin Stanton’s orders and sketched Lincoln in his coffin, probably bribing a guard to do it.  He produced a well-known outline pencil sketch, around 2am in the morning of the April 25th.  Back in his studio, he produced an intermediary rough ink portrait that was followed by this much more elaborate and detailed “Finished Drawing,” which has a high Victorian feel to it.

Morand had sketched Lincoln enough times “from life” that he was able to capture the essence of the man in death.  Lincoln’s animated features are stilled and at rest, as only death can bring.  Eyes closed and his face in its death pallor, his head makes an impression on the tasseled pillow beneath.  Dressed in his usual suit, with his bow tie straighter than normal and a slight wrinkle in his shirt, numerous flowers are draped around the coffin.

In excellent condition.

(--) (Funeral)  Printed Programme, ”Official Arrangements at Washington for the funeral...of the late Abraham Lincoln...” signed in type by Asst. Adj. Gen. W(illiam) A. Nichols.   War Dept., A.A.G.’s office, Washington: 17 April 1865.  12 mo., 3 p.; mourning rules. [M654] 

Price: SOLD

This handout sets forth the order of Lincoln’s funeral procession, naming some individuals of the cortege escort (Genls. Grant, Halleck, Adm. Farragut), as well as the meeting point, time schedule, gun salutes, and some other details.

Light toning., else fine.

  (--) (Newspapers) Four issues of the Worcester (Mass.) Daily Transcript newspaper for 17, 18, 19 and 21 April 1865. Each giant fol.; 4p.
Price: $225.00

Pages 2 and 3 of every issue contain editorials and articles giving "facts and rumors" about the assassination, Gov. Seward's condition, Payne's arrest, Booth's guilt, the obsequies (incl. an account of the capital funeral), and public mourning and reaction (one item tells of a man mobbed and fired for declaring the news of Lincoln's murder the "best he had heard for four years").

Removed from a bound vol.; some marg./fold wear, toning, sm. tears, but overall v.g.

  (--) (--) Six scattered issues of the New York Daily Tribune newspaper between 18 and 28 April 1865. Each giant fol.; 8p., w/black mourning rules.
Price: $475.00

Extensive coverage on all aspects of the assassination, its aftermath, and the personalities involved. Among other items noted: the text of Edwin Booth's letter lamenting the crime and his brother's probable involvement; a detailed account of the New York funeral; news of the chase, and finally the death of John Wilkes Booth at Garrett's farm.

Foxing, edge/fold wear and various sm. faults, but fundamentally all quite good.


Lincoln Family, Associates, Lincoln Cabinet Members, Etc.
Autographic and Ephemeral Items

  Lincoln, Mary (1818-1882; First Lady) Dictated Letter, signed "Mary Lincoln". Washington City: 15 May 1865. 4to.; 1p.; blue-lined paper. To: Hon. H(ugh) McCulloch, Sec. of Treasury. Not in Turner [Mary Todd Lincoln: Her Life and Letters] and one of only a handful written during the brief six-week period that followed the murder of her husband.

Price: $17,500.00

In full:

"The bearer, Patrick Kilafoyle, I have known for the last four years and more, and do take pleasure in saying that I consider him a very worthy man, has been employed in the g rounds attached to the White House, and in that capacity I have found him at all times an obedient and respectful employee. We all well know that with the past and present enormous rates of the necessities of life it is next to an impossibility for a man with only small pay & a large helpless family to make ends meet and it is chiefly on this account I would call the attention of the Dept. to this man as a small tribute of my regard for a trustworthy and faithful public servant. I would in this connection state, that he has a daughter & son who might render him material aid if anything could be done for either in the Treasury Department. Hoping this may meet your earliest consideration I am with much respect…"

It was common practice for people leaving White House service to receive presidential (and first lady) recommendations for employment. The tenor of this letter is certainly that of Mary Lincoln and she obviously had trouble writing her own letter; indeed, her signature indicates a careful writing, as if fearful of seeming unnerved - which she certainly was!

Fold tears archivally mended; some lt. staining, remnants of mount on verso; else excellent. Only six letters from this period extant, housed in museums.

  Lincoln, Robert T. Autograph Letter, signed "Robert Lincoln." London: Legation of the United States (letterhead), 23 May (18)92. To Herman Haupt (distinguished civil engineer who had been in charge of military railroads for the Union army, 1862-3). 8vo.; 4p.; boldly written.

Price: $1,250.00

After explaining how his effort to accommodate friends of Haupt went awry, he turns to a memory he had with his father: "I shall look for your Century article with very great interest. I have never been able to find a scrap of record to verify my perfectly distinct memory of what my father told me in reference to General Lee's escape."

A copy of the Century article is enclosed and recounts how Haupt saw Lincoln in great distress at Gen. Meade allowing Lee to escape over the Potomac River after the Battle of Gettysburg.

(Below is a Military Commission signed by Chester Arthur and Robert Lincoln)

  LINCOLN, Robert.  Check, Signed. London:  8 August 1890. 

(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $825.00

An unusual, handsome, and colorful check on the London & Westminster Bank Limited, accomplished and signed while Minister to England.  It is made out to Mr. Charles Edward Mudie for “Eleven shillings and sixpence.” 

Framed with an image of Robert at a younger age.  Excellent. With bold ink writing. 


(--) /Arthur, Chester (21st President; Civil War Quarter-Master General, rank as Brig. Genl.)   Vellum D.S. by both.  Washington, D.C.: 8 July 1882.  Giant fol.; 1p. 

Price: $2,850.00

Handsome partly engraved appointment of James D. Nickerson as First Lieutenant in the Seventeenth Regiment of Infantry.   Illustrated with vignettes of spread eagle and implements of war. 

Robert Lincoln as Secretary of State is quite desirable.

Deep blue wafer seal; quite clean and fresh, w/large, well-adhered signatures. 

  (--) Nicolay, John G.  A SHORT LIFE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN.  New York: 1911.  578p., ft.  [M1376 (1902 original)] 

Price: $1,650.00

Nicolay’s condensation of his and Hay’s 10 volume classic.  It was his last task for Lincoln - he died while working on the book.  Inscribed by the subject’s son, who made the original biography possible by giving Nicolay and Hay access to his father’s papers --- but not without strong editorial say so.

“To Carl V. Chandler / With the good wishes of / Robert T. Lincoln / April 8, 1915”. 

A nice association piece!  Rub. & bump.; shaken hngs., esp. ft.; lt. musty; else v.g., w/ t.e.g.

  (--) (Lincoln Centennial)  (Nicolay, John, and Hay, John, eds.)  SPEECHES & LETTERS OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN:  1832-1865.  London:  (1909).  2nd ed., 237p.  [M1550n] 


A one-volume version of Nicolay and Hay’s 1894 The Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, and a title in “Everyman’s Library”.  This copy is one of one thousand procured for the Lincoln Centennial Association Banquet in Springfield, February 12, 1909, “one for each plate at the Banquet [by invitation only], as a souvenir of the occasion”.  This “special edition” included an 8p. insert, “The Lincoln Centennial Celebration at Springfield”, bound in front of the text, detailing the upcoming event, and listing  the Association membership.  Signed on the front fly of the insert by Robert T. Lincoln and three of the notables who spoke that day:  William Jennings Bryan (“W.J. Bryan”), who the preceding November had been defeated for the presidency for the third time; James Bryce, distinguished historian, MP, and Ambassador to the U.S.  from Great Britain, who wrote the Introduction; and J.J. Jusserand (“Jusserand”), the Ambassador from the French Republic. 

In red leatherette wraps, w/ gilt inlay on sp. & device on ft. cover; ch. at head of sp.; edgewear & lt. overall wear, else v.g.   A unique collectable from the Centennial!


Douglas, Stephen A. (Death of). ADDRESSES ON THE DEATH OF HON. STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS, DELIVERED IN THE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ON TUESDAY, JULY 9, 1861.  Washington: GPO, 1861.  92p.; wrappers; each page w/ mourning rule. 


Price: $175.00

Trace of a central fold; spine paper mostly off, but solid; lt extem wear; else v. good, clean.  Rare.     

(More Stephen Douglas Here and Here and below)          


(--) (Dred Scott Decision) REMARKS OF THE HON. STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS ON KANSAS, UTAH AND THE DRED SCOTT DECISION. Chicago; 1857; octavo; 15p, disbound.


Price: $575.00

A pamphlet reprint of Douglas' remarks delivered in Springfield, IL in June of 1857.

Rather foxed, rough left edge from removal of binding.

(More Stephen Douglas Here and Here and above)       

  (Executive Mansion - Reception) Dodge, Lucy A. Manuscript Letter, signed; Washington, 26 February 1865, 8" x 10", 1p. Writing to George C. Dodge, husband and Cleveland, OH County Treasuer.

(Entire at Click Thru)

Price: $1,850.00

A chatty and warm letter, written on both sides of the sheet, with many details on a reception at the Executive Mansion, the "the last of the season and the gayest..."

Excellent condition, folded in sixths as per usual, minor crease wear on verso. Includes and envelope in which the letter was stored--not the original as it is addressed to her.


Hay, John (Secretary and Biographer of Abraham Lincoln; Diplomat and Secretary of State) Autograph document, signed, "John Hay / Exec. Mansion". Washington: 6 January 1864. On War Department form; 1p., 12mo.


Price: $2,500.00

In a handwritten military telegram from the White House at 6.35 pm, Hay requests information relating to the departure of two Union transports from New York, bound for Hilton Head, South Carolina. "Major Van Vliet, Quarter Master, New York. Please inform me when Steamer, Argo or Fulton starts from New York to Hilton Head".

Late in 1863, Hay had served as a volunteer aide-de-camp on the staff of Union General Quincy A. Gillmore, Commander of the Department of the South, at the time stationed in South Carolina. Hay, now commissioned by Lincoln as a Major, was about to meet with Gillmore again, this time in Florida, to generate support among the populace in the areas under Federal control and aid in implementing in that state Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. Issued December 8, 1863, this presidential order set out for the provisions for returning the southern states to the Union. Hay was to remain in Florida until March, and would record in his diary that this early attempt at forming a loyal state government in accordance with Lincoln's plan had failed.

Clean paper separation, at the lower of two horizontal folds, which passes through the signature, has been repaired on the verso; otherwise very good


(--) CASTILIAN DAYS.  Boston and New York:  (1899).  Revised ed., 414p. With Autograph Letter, signed from Secretary Hay on Department of State stationery pasted on inside board, dated October 15, 1900, to one Charles A. Lorning (his signature is on the front fly). 


(More at Click -thru)

Price: SOLD

Lincoln’s former secretary’s musings and observations on Spain and Spanish society after his State Department service as Secretary of the legation in Madrid (1869-70, under Dan Sickles), full of democratic enthusiasm and attacks on European despotism and monarchy. 

First published in 1871, it became a campaign issue when reissued in 1904, because its anti-Catholic attacks in virtually every chapter stirred Democratic (i.e. Irish) ire against the author, Theodore Roosevelt’s Secretary of State. 

Book is Lt. rub. & edgewear; rear hng. starting; else v.g., w/ maroon binding & t.e.g., Letter is very good, center fold, small stain (glue?) lower right.


(--) EUTHANASIA.  Printed Poem, Signed.   NP: n.d.  1p., 4to. 


(Entire at Click-thru)

Price: $875.00

A highly unusual, beautifully printed poem by the class (1858) poet of Brown University, dealing with a delicate subject and showing the early influence of Edgar Allan Poe on the literary minded Hay.

The personal secretary of Abraham Lincoln in the White House, Hay, along with fellow secretary John Nicolay, wrote the legendary 10 volume biography of their chief, one of the truly essential works on Lincoln.  Hay later served two other presidents, McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt, as Secretary of State. 

Taken from an unknown collection of poetry; on the reverse is another signed poem, The King’s Touch, by American Henry Harland (who wrote under the pseudonym Sidney Luska), editor of the Yellow Book



(--) (Lincoln Herndon Law Firm Ad) (Lincoln/Herndon Newspaper Classified Advertisement) “Daily Illinois State Journal” Springfield:  14 June 1858.  4p. Ad on front:  “Lincoln & Herndon / Attorneys and Counsellors (sic) at Law--will practice in the Courts of Law and Chancery in this state--Springfield, Ill.” 


(More at Click-thru)

Price: SOLD

The ads of many of their associates are here as well, e.g. Stuart & Edwards, Logan & Hay, James C. Conkling (Lincoln’s friend and anti-slavery neighbor), and James H. Matheny (Best Man at Abraham and Mary's wedding).  Much on the Illinois state Democratic convention.  In just five weeks, Lincoln would challenge Stephen Douglas; to “divide time” and debate in front of the same crowd. 

Clean for display; usual lt. fold marks.

  Speed, Joshua Fry. Autograph Letter, signed. Washington; 1 December 1861, to Captain C.C. Gilbert. 7 1/2" x 10"; 1p.

Price: $2,500.00

Lincoln met Speed in New Salem, the two shared a room and they remained friends always.

In its entirety:

Washington 1 Decm 1861

Capt. C.C. Gilbert

Dear Sir

Last night I had an interview with Genl McClelan & the President separately.

McClelan promised that Monday he would make you brigadeir with orders to report to BAlt.

It may be gratifying to you know that he spoke in high terms of you and was very willing to acceed to the request of your friends in recommending your promotion to the President.

Very Truly

your friend

J.F. Speed

Gilbert annotates the letter at the bottom; Gilbert's son attests the note is in the hand of his father.

Very good; faint pencil notes in top corners.

  Stevens, Thaddeus (Radical Republican Congressman from Pennsylvania; abolitionist; manager of Andrew Johnson’s impeachment) Autograph pass, signed in full: “Washington  Feb. 14 1863 / B.F. Stevens is a loyal man / who wishes to visit Alexandria / Thaddeus Stevens”.  4-½” x 7-½”. 

Price: $1,200.00

The B.F. Stevens in question may have been a nephew of the stern, sarcastic, and impassioned Congressman portrayed by Tommy Lee Jones in Lincoln.  Originally in the possession of the Lincoln Library in Shippensburg, PA (Stevens’ native state), this war date ANS is perfect for framing. 

Two vertical folds, one horizontal; v.g. 


Lincoln-related Photographica


(--) Brady, Mathew. Carte de Visite, O-17, "The Cooper Union" pose. New York, 27 February, 1860. E. Anthony back mark.

Price: SOLD

Dated "June 9th / 61." and initialed "J.M.M." on verso by James Murray Mason, U. S. Senator from Virginia, and Confederate diplomat. Mason is the "Mason" of Mason and Slidell fame because of the Trent Affair, a major foreign policy crisis of Lincoln's presidency. It is especially intriguing that this Confederate should have purchased and initialed this high-profile Lincoln image after the commencement of hostilities.

Lincoln always felt that this image helped make him president.

Brady inscribed his name "Brady N.Y." into the original glass negative. When Anthony later produces the photo, Brady's named appears on the front.

This carte is quite difficult to find with this tonality, and has more depth than most examples found. The muted background causes the image to pop. It is also uncommon to see the photographic album Lincoln is resting his hand on so clearly and with such sharpness; one can easily see (faux) raised bands on spine.

Trimmed; top corners are slightly rounded.


(--) Hesler, Alexander.  Albumen Photograph of Abraham Lincoln, taken from an original Hesler negative (June, 1860).  Philadelphia: c1880s.  [O-26]  “Copyright / Geo. B. Ayers / Phila” handwritten on verso; Ayers' blindstamp at both bottom corners of recto.  10” x 7-1/2”. 

Price: $3,850.00

Gorgeous!  And nice as they come:   beautiful, deep tonality; detailed and clear; emulsion edges can be seen.

Previous mounting remnants at the very bottom of the mount -- off the albumen – could easily be matted out.


(--). Hesler, Alexander.  Albumen Photograph of Abraham Lincoln, taken from an original Hesler negative (June, 1860).  Philadelphia: c1880s.  [O-27]  “Copyright / Geo. B. Ayers / Phila” handwritten on verso; 6-3/4” x 8-1/4”. 

Price: $3,850.00

Ayers had purchased Hesler’s studio and later sold it, taking the glass plates for this sitting with him.  This image, O-27, is more difficult to find than the more sideward facing O-26 (above).

In the 1880s, Lincoln’s secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay, asked to use this pose for a frontispiece, and the image became instantly famous.  Ayers made many copies for sale, but rarely do they come to us this finely sharp and clear.  Of this Lincoln commented that “It looks better and it expresses me better than any I have seen; if it pleases the people I am satisfied.” 

As nice as they come:   beautiful, deep tonality; detailed and clear; emulsion edges can be seen; very sm. ch. at upper right corner. Taken as Republican nominee for the presidency.


(--) Fay, H. W. 4 1/4 x 6 1/2 Cabinet Card of O-83, 8 January 1864, Washington.

Price: SOLD

Herbert W. Fay as a collector of historical portraits. This collection was begun by Fay in 1869 and contained fifty thousand photographs of some of the most notable people in the world. His collection included ninety different sittings of Lincoln and twenty-five of Longfellow. In later years Mr. Fay went to Springfield as custodian of the Abraham Lincoln Monument.

This cabinet card was reproduced around 1890.

Excellent conditon, with pencil notation on verso.


An Important Grouping of Lincoln Carte-de-visites

When collectors of Lincoln photographs are speaking of specific Lincoln photographic poses, they often reference them by the O-Numbers. The O Numbers, established by Lloyd Ostendorf and Charles Hamilton in the definitive Lincoln photographic reference book, Lincoln in Photographs. Revised in and retitled to Lincoln's Photographs in 1998, and still available.


Brady backmark,
February 17, 1860.


Anthony backmark,
February 24, 1861.


Anthony backmark,
February 24, 1861.

Price: $3,850.00
Price: $2,750.00



Anthony backmark, 1861.


Brady backmark, 1861.


Brady backmark, April 17, 1863.




No backmark, August 9, 1863.


J. Gurney & Son backmark, originally taken January 8, 1864.


Anthony backmark, January 8, 1864

Price: $1,850.00
Price: $850.00
Price: $1,500.00



Brady backmark, February 9, 1864.


Brady backmark, February 9, 1864.


Brady backmark, February 9, 1864.

Price: $2,850.00
Price: $950.00
Price: $875.00



Wenderoth & Taylor backmark, 1864.


Anthony backmark, February, 1865.


No backmark, originally shot February 5, 1865

Price: $925.00
Price: $3,500.00
Price: $775.00

Lincoln, Mary (First Lady) Albumen Carte de Visite Photograph.  (No backmark, but: Washington:  Brady, 1861)  (Ostendorf-12) 

Price: SOLD

One of a number of images Brady made of Mary in her inaugural gown.  Her seamstress, Elizabeth Keckley, wrote that, “She had a beautiful neck and arm, and low dresses were becoming to her.”  The first lady wears a Victorian gown of Dolly Varden pattern. 

No backmark, but from the negative as it is quite clear and with great tonality.


(--) Albumen Carte de Visite Photograph & Mourning Ribbon.

Price: SOLD

A rosette on a brass stick pin bearing a beautiful likeness of Abraham, with a well-known, yet quite scarce, carte-de-visite of Mary in mourning garb (c1869; O-25). 

Each in very good condition; the cdv has nice tonality.